Firmware is a type of low-level software that is stored in a device’s hardware components and controls the device’s basic functions. It is a crucial component of most electronics, including computers, smartphones, and other connected devices.

What Does Firmware Do in Computers?

In computers, firmware is responsible for controlling a range of hardware components, including the system’s boot process, peripheral devices, and low-level system settings. Some of the specific functions of firmware in computers include:

  • Booting the Computer: Firmware is responsible for booting the computer and performing a series of checks and tests before loading the operating system.

  • Controlling Peripheral Devices: Firmware controls peripheral devices, such as hard drives, CD/DVD drives, and network adapters, and enables communication between these devices and the operating system.

  • Managing Low-Level System Settings: Firmware also manages low-level system settings, such as the computer’s clock, power management, and hardware configuration, and provides a interface for the operating system to access these settings.

Types of Firmware in Computers

There are several types of firmware in computers, including:

  • BIOS: Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) is a type of firmware that is stored on a computer’s motherboard and is responsible for booting the computer and managing low-level system settings.

  • UEFI: Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) is a modern alternative to BIOS that offers improved functionality and security features, such as secure boot and support for larger hard drives.

  • Device Firmware: In addition to BIOS and UEFI, there is also firmware stored on specific devices, such as hard drives, network adapters, and other peripherals, which controls the device’s specific functions and enables communication with the operating system.


Firmware is a crucial component of computers and other electronics that plays a vital role in controlling the device’s basic functions and enabling communication between hardware components and the operating system. Understanding the role of firmware in computers is important for maintaining the performance and security of the device, and for troubleshooting issues that may arise.